Shelter Case Studies .org

Sharing experiences in humanitarian shelter projects following conflict and natural disaster.

Shelter case studies

This website is a repository for over 130 case studies of post-disaster and post-conflict shelter projects plus more than 30 additional overviews, updates and opinion pieces, all originally published in the "Shelter Projects" series of five books.
Scroll down to use the searchable table of documents to find the article you need!

This website also contains pdf versions of two books of technical shelter designs. These examples are included in the table below.

The Shelter Projects series is an initiative funded and led by UNHCR, UN-HABITAT and IFRC. The case studies are the work of many implementing organisations.

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Note that some case studies are grouped together into one pdf when they relate to the same emergency.

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Country:
Title Year Emergency Article Type Publication Description Keywords Country Year-start Year-end EmergencyTypeSimple ArticleType PublicationSimple ChapterSimple
Title Year Emergency Article Type Publication Description Keywords Country Year-start Year-end EmergencyTypeSimple ArticleType PublicationSimple ChapterSimple
Afghanistan, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.01) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter was built to act as a shell to protect occupants living in tents. Each shelter contains one tent, erected inside the structure. It is rectangular in plan and has 1.8m tall side walls and a gable roof. The covered floor area is approximately 9m x 4.3m. The frames are constructed from bamboo poles. The frames are connected using plywood gusset plates and bolts. The walls and roof are plastic sheeting, and are supported on the bamboo frame and purlins. The floor is compacted soil. The shelter frames were shop fabricated in the camp and transported to the construction site. The frames are embedded into the ground for support.
Afghanistan 2009 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.1
Burkina Faso, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.02) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular timber frame with a pitched roof and a covered floor area of 2.7m x 1.8m. The frame has plastic sheeting for both roof and wall covering, and one door on each short side. The wall frame is made from timber panels that are pre-fabricated on the ground. The timber roof structure is nailed to these panels. Both walls and roof are reinforced with wire cross bracing. There is a knee braced timber framed along the roof ridge which supports the roof panels, and provides stability during construction. Wall and roof covering is fastened to the timbers using flat-head nails.
Burkina Faso 2009 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.2
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.03) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular timber framed structure with a gable roof and a covered floor area of approximately 21 square meters. Wall consists of wood studs with plywood sheathing, and the roof consists of metal roofing on wood purlins and trusses. The trusses are supported on wood posts within in the perimeter walls.
The wood trusses can be pre-manufactured and shipped to the construction site. The foundation consists of concrete piers in the four corners and a stone masonry wall in-between the piers. The floor is a cast-in-place concrete slab. As designed, the shelter has only one door and one window.
Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.3
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.04) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular timber framed structure with a gable roof and a covered floor area of approximately 3.6m x 4.9m with a covered porch measuring approximately 3.6m x 1.8m in front. The floor is constructed with wood joists, and the walls are constructed with wood studs. Both are supported by built-up timber posts. The roof is framed with wood trusses that can be pre-manufactured and shipped to the site.
The roof extends over the porch to provide cover. Floors and walls are covered with plywood, and the roof is covered with metal panels. The bottom of the built-up timber posts are encased in concrete and embedded in the ground. The design includes one door in the front and back walls, and louvred wall openings.
Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.4
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.05) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular timber framed structure with a gable roof and a covered floor area of approximately
5.4m x 3.7m with a covered porch measuring approximately 1.8m x 3.7m. The roof has wood and corrugated bituminous roofing supported on timber purlins and trusses. The exterior walls are wood framed, and the wall infill is constructed using a traditional technique called clissage, which consists of thin slats of wood woven between the wall framing. The foundation consists of wood posts embedded in concrete piers, and the floor is an elevated concrete slab supported by a short masonry wall between the wood posts. As designed, the shelter has one door and two windows. The shelters were designed to be accessible by persons with reduced mobility and individual modifications were made according to personal needs.
Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.5
Philippines, 2012, Cyclone 2012 Cyclone Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.06) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular structure with a single pitch roof and a covered floor area of approximately 4.8m x 3.7m. The shelter is supported on concrete piers and footings such that the first floor is raised approximately 750mm above grade. The floor and roof are framed with coconut wood beams and joists. The floor is plywood and the roof is corrugated metal roofing. The exterior walls consist of amakan (woven panels of bamboo or palm leaves) fastened to the coconut wood frame. The light weight wood frame can be lifted off the concrete piers and moved to a different location by a small number of people. As designed, the shelter has one door and two windows.
Philippines 2012 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.6
Philippines, 2012, Cyclone 2012 Cyclone Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.07) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular structure with a gable roof and a covered floor area of approximately 4.0m x 5.0m with a covered bathroom and vestibule of approximately 4.0m x 1.5m. The exterior walls have a half height concrete masonry wall with wood framing on top up to the eaves. The roof consists of timber trusses and purlins supporting corrugated metal roofing. The roof framing is supported by eight precast concrete columns located within the exterior walls. The concrete columns and masonry walls are embedded in the ground, and the plans do not specifically call for footings. The floor is a cast in place concrete slab, and the bathroom has a below grade septic tank. The modular construction for the shelter allows for expansion in both horizontal directions with only minor modifications to the core shelter. It is also possible to deconstruct the shelter for relocation and/or to be included in permanent construction. As designed, the shelter has two doors and two windows.
Philippines 2012 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.7
Bangladesh, 2008, Cyclone 2008 Cyclone Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.08) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is has reinforced concrete columns, a steel framed hip roof with metal roofing and bamboo mat walls. The total covered area is approximately 4.5m x 3.2m, and there is one door and three windows. The floor is raised above existing grade, and a short brick wall is provided around the perimeter to resist flood waters and windblown rain. The 8 concrete columns are embedded approximately 1.5m into the ground. The roof truss is constructed with steel angles and is anchored to the concrete columns. The foundation consists of the 8 embedded columns, and a perimeter concrete grade beam. There are wooden beams between the columns approximately 2.1m above the first floor, which allow the addition of a mezzanine level to the shelter.
The shelter is designed to be easily moved by unbolting the columns and roof frame with hand tools and the materials can be re-used as a part of permanent housing reconstruction. Additionally it is designed so that a mezzanine level can be built to provide storage space in case of floods.
Bangladesh 2008 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.8
Pakistan, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.09) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular structure with a flat roof with approximate dimensions of 4.8m x 3.9m. Walls are built with 230mm thick unreinforced fire burned brick walls supporting the roof. The roof is constructed with ceramic tiles supported on steel beams, and a cement plaster coating is placed on top of the tiles. The foundation consists of unreinforced brick footings and foundation walls. The mud plastered floor is raised a minimum of 610mm above the surrounding ground surface. As designed, the shelter has one door and one window, along with air vents near the top of the walls.
Pakistan 2010 Natural Disaster Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.9
Sri Lanka, 2010, Conflict 2010 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs (B.10) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
This shelter is a rectangular structure with a gable roof and an enclosed floor area of approximately 3.5m x
2.8m with an additional covered veranda of approximately 3.5m x 2.8m. The exterior walls are built with unreinforced bricks with six reinforced masonry piers. All masonry blocks are fabricated by the shelter occupants prior to construction. The roof consists of coconut wood rafters and purlins supporting corrugated iron sheet roofing. The compacted earth and concrete floor is raised above the surrounding ground surface. The perimeter walls extend into the ground, and are supported on brick footings. The modular construction for the shelter allows for expansion in both horizontal directions with only minor modifications to the core shelter. As designed, the shelter has one door and one window.
Sri Lanka 2010 Conflict Technical Post-Disaster Shelter: 10 Designs B.10
Indonesia, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.01) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The rectangular bamboo frame structure measures 6m x 4m on plan and has a hipped roof of terracotta tiles
laid on bamboo matting and laths. The frame has woven bamboo matting walls, a door at the front and two windows on each side. The back section has a raised floor which forms a sleeping area constructed from bamboo joists and panelling. The floor void has been filled with rubble confined by a low masonry wall all round. The structure is braced with bamboo members on all sides which provides stability with an additional roof truss in the centre. The shelter is supported by five bucket foundations with a length of bamboo cast in to connect to the four main columns. The frame connections are pinned using bamboo pegs and then secured with rope. The roofing and flooring are fixed with nails.
Indonesia 2009 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.1
Indonesia, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.02) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The shelter is a timber framed structure with palm roofing and walls. It measures 4.5m x 4m on plan and is 3.35m tall to the ridge beam and 2.4m to the eaves. It has a pitched roof of 23.6 degrees. There is no bracing, but some stability is provided by three portal frames tied together by horizontal members at ground, eaves and ridge level. Each portal frame is made up of two or three columns and a roof truss with rafters and corner bracing members. The corner bracing in the frames provides lateral stiffness. Secondary non-structural members include: floor joists, roof joists spanning between rafters and transoms to support palm matting wall panels. The shelter has a suspended floor. This is assumed to be coconut wood boarding spanning between the floor joists. The columns are embedded into concrete bucket foundations that sit directly on the ground.
Indonesia 2009 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.2
Pakistan, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.03) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The shelter consists of 7 triangular frames, connected by a ridge pole. The ridge pole is supported by two 2.74m high vertical columns at each end. The shelter is 4.3m x 5.7m on plan. It has a low (0.9m) brick wall constructed inside the frame to provide protection against flood damage and retain warmth. The roof is pitched at 44 degrees and is made of corrugated steel sheeting. The sheeting is nailed to purlins that span between the frames. The roof sheeting is laid on top of locally available insulating material and plastic sheeting. The foundation of the shelter is provided by burying the rafters and columns approximately 0.3m in to the ground on top of stone footings. Guy ropes over the roof sheeting have been used to help prevent uplift under wind loads.
Pakistan 2010 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.3
Peru, 2007, Earthquake 2007 Earthquake 2 Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.04) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The shelter has a Bolaina (Bolayna) timber braced frame, measuring 3m x 6m on plan with a single pitched roof at four degrees. The shelter is clad with tongue and groove solid timber board walls and a corrugated fibre cement sheet roof. It is 2.4m high and stands on a new or existing concrete floor slab. In instances where a new slab has been used, wire ties wrapped around nails have been cast into the slab and attached to the frame at all column locations to resist uplift. Where existing slabs have been used the shelter has been staked to posts installed outside the slab. The shelter is constructed as 6 panels which are then nailed together using connecting wooden members, connecting plates and plastic strapping. A central roof edge beam is attached to the panels and are purlins nailed on top of this to support the roof.
Peru 2007 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.4
Peru, 2007, Earthquake 2007 Earthquake 2 Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.05) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The structure is a rigid box consisting of braced frames in both directions. The braced frames provide lateral stability. The eucalyptus timber frame has a flat roof and is covered with stapled plastic sheeting and nailed palm matting on all faces. The shelter is 2m high and 3m x 6m on plan. The bracing consists of crossed twisted wires. The 75mm diameter columns are connected horizontally with 50mm diameter horizontal members. The foundation and floor consists of an unreinforced concrete slab with cast in wire ties. The connections between members are made using bent nails.
Peru 2007 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.5
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.06) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The shelter consists of a galvanised rectangular steel frame with an 8.5 degree mono-pitch roof and a suspended floor. The height to the eaves is 2.55m and 3m to the ridge and there is no bracing. The shelter is 3 x 6 m on plan and has 6 columns spaced on a 3m grid, fixed to 800x800x400mm rectangular reinforced concrete foundations using a 300x300x6mm base plate and four ordinary bolts per base. The raised floor is also supported by 13 additional stub columns on 100x100x6mm base plates bearing directly on to the soil. The main structure is three primary frames with rectangular hollow section columns. The roof cladding is corrugated steel sheeting nailed to steel secondary roof members spaced at 0.75m intervals spanning between the three primary frames. Timber studs are screwed to the steel members and the plastic wall sheeting is attached to this. Additional timber sub-framing is used to form windows and doors.
Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.6
Indonesia, 2004, Earthquake/Tsunami 2004 Earthquake/Tsunami Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.07) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The structure consists of a cold rolled, hot dip galvanised steel frame with a pitched roof of 24.3 degrees and a raised floor. The height is 2.8m to the eaves and 4.15m to the ridge. The platform area of the shelter is 25m2 with a cantilevering balcony at opposite sides front and back and a cantilevering roof covering the balconies. There are 6 columns fixed using column base plates nailed directly into the ground. Metal roof sheets are screwed to steel purlins spanning between primary roof beams. Limited lateral stability is provided by timber plank wall cladding fixed to timber studs that are in turn screwed to the steel frame. The floor consists of timber planks spanning between steel joists.
Indonesia 2004 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.7
Vietnam, 2004, Typhoon 2004 Typhoon Technical T-shelter: 8 designs (B.08) NOTE: See full document for explanation of terms. Do not reproduce these designs without considering the specific implementation context.
The shelter is a galvanised lightweight steel frame with plywood walls and a corrugated steel sheet roof. It has a covered area of 3.6 x 8.4m on plan including a living area of 3.6 x 7.2m. The roof has a pitch of 16.5 degrees. The height of the roof varies from 3.2m at the eaves to 4.6m at the ridge. There are two doors, one at the side and one at the front, and a cantilevered canopy projecting 1.3m beyond the door to form a porch. There are twelve columns, six of which have screw in ground anchor foundations, connected in pairs by a braced truss to form a moment frame. The stability system is formed by these three moment frames tied together by two further moment frames on each edge of the building. There is steel tie bracing underneath the roof sheeting. The shelter has a 100mm thick concrete slab base cast over the screw anchor foundations and floor tie beams. There is a low, non-structural, 0.5m, brickwork wall providing a degree of flood protection.
Vietnam 2004 Natural Disaster Technical T-shelter: 8 designs B.8
DRC, 2002, Volcano 2002 Volcano Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.01) Disaster: Goma volcano eruption in 2002
Summary: Distribution of mostly locally procured materials for beneficiaries to build their own transitional shelters on self-selected plots after the eruption of the volcano in Goma. The distribution was accompanied by technical support and distribution monitoring.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Direct, Technical expertise Dem. Rep. Congo 2002 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.1
Eritrea, 1998, Conflict 1998 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.02) Emergency: IDPs in camps in Eritrea following Eritrea/ Ethiopia conflict
Summary: Support for a variable population of Eritrean IDPs following the conflict with Ethiopia. The agency in this case study was the main provider of shelter and non-food item (NFI) assistance. They provided IDPs with tents, tarpaulins and other non-food items (such as stoves) to those living in camps in the Gash-Barka, Debub and Red Sea states. The provision of durable shelter items was not possible due to political interests in ensuring that the camps were temporary. As a result, IDPs often adapted the emergency shelter items they received in order to improve their living conditions.
Household items, Construction materials, Technical expertise Eritrea 1998 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.2
Kenya, Dadaab, 2007, Floods/Conflict 2007 Floods/Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.03) Emergency: Ifo refugee camp flood response, Dadaab, Kenya, 2007
Summary: Through a combination of upgrading and emergency response funding, 500 families were assisted in making bricks and building shelters through a community-based construction programme following flooding in a large refugee camp.
Tools, Community Kenya 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.3
Kenya, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.04) Emergency: Kenyan election crisis, 2007-2008.
Summary: Provision of transitional shelter kits as a pilot project in the Rift Valley of Kenya, before upscaling to a national response. Shelters were designed to be adapted by beneficiaries into permanent homes and, except in the case of vulnerable households, were erected by the beneficiaries themselves.
Construction materials, Tools, Technical expertise Kenya 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.4
Liberia, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.05) Emergency: Liberian returnees, 2007
Summary: Shelter assistance to vulnerable returnees (IDPs and refugees). Building materials were provided and cash incentives were given to communities for construction. The agency provided technical support and close project monitoring in collaboration with the community.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Technical expertise Liberia 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.5
Mozambique, 2007, Cyclone 2007 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.06) Emergency: Cyclone Favio in northern Inhambane, Mozambique, February 2007
Summary: Despite having no previous shelter programming experience in the country, no emergency shelter stockpile and a delay in funding, the agency distributed shelter materials with technical advice to the most vulnerable people affected by the cyclone (child-headed households, widows, the chronically ill, handicapped, etc.) in two districts.
Construction materials Mozambique 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.6
Rwanda, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.07) Emergency: Forced repatriation of people of ‘Rwandan origin’ from Tanzania to Rwanda.
Summary: This project provided support to people of Rwandan origin expelled from Tanzania by providing materials for house building, masons and providing shared services at the site of return. Communities were mobilised by forming beneficiary associations in consultation with the local government. The role of the associations was to collectivise the tasks required for house building.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Rwanda 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.7
Somalia, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.08) Emergency: Somalia civil conflict – 1991 onwards (chronic emergency)
Summary: A resettlement project in Puntland, Somalia, preceded by in-depth discussions on the concepts of access to land for IDPs and related negotiations on land rights. A consortium of agencies built a serviced community settlement supporting beneficiaries in the construction of extendable singleroom houses and providing them with temporary shelters on their new plot.
Core housing / progressive shelter, Technical expertise Somalia 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.8
Sudan, Darfur, 2004, Conflict 2004 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (A.09) Emergency: Response to displacement caused by violent conflict in Darfur, Sudan, 2004 (ongoing)
Summary: A joint distribution mechanism, which would later include joint procurement, was set up by a consortium of NGOs and UN agencies to standardise the procurement and distribution of basic shelter materials to those displaced by the conflict.
Household items, Construction materials Sudan 2004 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 A.9
Afghanistan, 2002, Conflict 2002 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.01) Emergency: Afghanistan repatriation 2002-2008.
Summary: A large-scale, self-build shelter programme implemented through partner organisations to help meet the needs of the 5 million people returning to Afghanistan since 2002, following conflict since 1979. Different shelter models were adopted around the country depending on local construction technology. This programme provided materials, basic technical guidance and cash for the most vulnerable people. It was integrated with monitoring and support for return. Escalating steel prices severely affected the programme, leaving it US$ 5 million under budget for 2008.
Household items, Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Direct, Technical expertise Afghanistan 2002 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.1
Azerbaijan, 1992, Conflict 1992 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.02) Emergency: Nagorno Karabakh conflict
Summary: This programme upgraded and maintained public buildings that people had moved to during the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh in the early 1990s. The project worked with families who, by the end of the project, had been displaced for over ten years. The way of working evolved over time, starting with contractor-led construction and evolving into direct implementation by the NGO. Although the project closed without a clear exit strategy, aspects of the project were taken up by the government in their housing policies.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Community, Technical expertise Azerbaijan 1992 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.2
India, 2001, Earthquake 2001 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.03) Emergency: Gujarat earthquake, January 2001
Summary: An international NGO worked in partnership with a network of 22 local NGOs to rapidly implement a non-food items distribution programme followed by a transitional shelter programme that built over 27,000 shelters. By working with local organisations, existing networks and local knowledge was used to effectively deliver materials and help construct shelters on a very large scale.
The speed and scale of the programme, combined with the different approaches of the international and the national organisation, led to a lack of the paperwork required by donors.
Household items, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Direct, Technical expertise India 2001 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.3
Indonesia, 2004, Earthquake/Tsunami 2004 Earthquake/Tsunami Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.04) Emergency: Earthquake followed by tsunami
Summary: This programme began with the concept of community-built, ‘transitional’ timber-framed shelters, managed and implemented by the community over a period of months. Due to the challenges in procuring legal or sustainable timber, local politics, the availability of significant funds and the number of other NGOs working in the area, the project evolved into a programme to build houses made from reinforced concrete and brick. The programme lasted over three years. Towards the end of the programme, many of the shelters were built by partner organisations.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Contracted, Direct, Technical expertise Indonesia 2004 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.4
Ingushetia (Russia), 1999, Conflict 1999 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.08) Emergency: Internal displacement of civilians following 2nd armed conflict in Chechnya,1999
Summary: An international donor, in close cooperation with the international leading agency for shelter assistance in Ingushetia, provided cash grants to every family that hosted displaced people from the conflict in neighbouring Chechnya. The project goal was to prevent IDPs, who were being accommodated by host families, from being evicted during winter. This was achieved though the provision of cash grants to all registered host families in Ingushetia.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Contracted, Direct, Technical expertise Russia 1999 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.8
Pakistan, 2005, Earthquake 2005 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2008 (B.09-11) Emergency: South Asia earthquake, 2005
Summary: Of the many responses that took place, the two case studies included in this section illustrate emergency shelter programmes. Both were conducted to support people through the first winter. One of the projects involves the construction of transitional shelters with a phased delivery of materials, while the other involves the distribution of shelter materials and toolkits.
Pakistan 2005 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2008 B.9-11
Pakistan, 2005, Earthquake 2005 Earthquake 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2008 (B.09-11) Emergency: South Asia earthquake, 2005
Summary: Of the many responses that took place, the two case studies included in this section illustrate emergency shelter programmes. Both were conducted to support people through the first winter. One of the projects involves the construction of transitional shelters with a phased delivery of materials, while the other involves the distribution of shelter materials and toolkits.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Pakistan 2005 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.9-11
Sri Lanka, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (B.12) Emergency: Civil conflict in Sri Lanka
Summary: This project built core shelters for families returning to their villages after being displaced by conflict. The construction was owner driven, allowing families to later expand the shelter as their circumstances allowed and for the same initial costs as less durable ‘semi-permanent’ shelters. Expansion and adaptation of the shelters happened very early on among the majority of beneficiary households.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Technical expertise Sri Lanka 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.12
Sri Lanka, 2004, Tsunami 2004 Tsunami Case study and Overview Shelter Projects 2008 (B.13-14) Emergency: Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004
Summary: Using easy-to-construct and easy-to-carry metal frame shelters adapted from previous Sri Lanka programmes, the NGO was able to support affected families in 27 different villages along the coastline.
The project avoided the creation of large camps, focusing instead on helping people to build on customary plots of land that belonged to them or were negotiated from land owners.
Household items, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Sri Lanka 2004 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.13-14
Indonesia, 2006, Earthquake 2006 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2008 (B.5-7) Emergency: Jogyakarta/Central Java earthquake, 24 May 2006
Summary: The case studies included in this section involve two organisations that both responded in phases: an initial distribution of emergency items, followed by a transitional shelter response. Both organisations used cash grants, either to individuals or to local organisations, to implement the transitional shelter programmes.
Indonesia 2006 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2008 B.5-7
Indonesia, 2006, Earthquake 2006 Earthquake 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2008 (B.5-7) Emergency: Jogyakarta/Central Java earthquake, 24 May 2006
Summary: The case studies included in this section involve two organisations that both responded in phases: an initial distribution of emergency items, followed by a transitional shelter response. Both organisations used cash grants, either to individuals or to local organisations, to implement the transitional shelter programmes.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Indonesia 2006 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 B.5-7
Honduras, 1998, Hurricane 1998 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (C.01) Emergency: Hurricane Mitch, 1998
Summary: The programme provided materials and technical assistance for construction of a 3.05m x 3.65m wood-framed shelter in central and southern Honduras for victims of Hurricane Mitch. The roof was made of galvanized roof sheets that were reused when the families rebuilt their houses with more durable materials. The sides were made of reinforced good quality woven plastic sheeting. The shelter included a door and two windows with nets to provide both privacy and ventilation.
Honduras 1998 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 C.1
Peru, 2007, Earthquake 2007 Earthquake 3 Case studies Shelter Projects 2008 (C.02-5) Emergency: Peru earthquake, 15 August 2007
Summary: The three case studies included here are responses by nongovernmental organisations. One rapidly distributed construction materials using existing community structures, one built shelters providing some cash for work on the shelters and one used contractors to build shelters with the shelter owners. All of these projects worked with those who already had land.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Contracted, Direct, Technical expertise Peru 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 C.2-5
Peru, 2007, Earthquake 2007 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2008 (C.02-5) Emergency: Peru earthquake, 15 August 2007
Summary: The three case studies included here are responses by nongovernmental organisations. One rapidly distributed construction materials using existing community structures, one built shelters providing some cash for work on the shelters and one used contractors to build shelters with the shelter owners. All of these projects worked with those who already had land.
Peru 2007 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2008 C.2-5
India, 1971, Conflict 1971 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.02) Emergency: Civil war in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan)
Summary: Refugee camps were designed in decentralised ‘village’ groupings. Construction and upgrading was undertaken in three phases: meeting basic needs, sustainable upgrading and maintenance of the camps. Emphasis was given first to sanitation and public health issues, and then to the emotional and social well-being of the inhabitants. From the lessons learned in this response, the first-ever humanitarian camp planning guidelines were developed.
Construction materials, Training India 1971 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.2
Nicaragua, 1972, Earthquake 1972 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.03) Emergency: Earthquake in the capital city of Managua
Summary: Working with displaced families, the NGO created a camp layout in Masaya, which, for the first time, grouped families into group clusters and supported community networks. This resulted in a camp with a much higher occupancy rate than any other camp built in response to the disaster, and at much lower costs.
Emergency shelter, Site planning, Direct Nicaragua 1972 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.3
Bangladesh, 1975, Conflict 1975 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.04) Emergency: Bangladesh War of Independence, 1971
Summary: Long-term camps for displaced stateless populations were upgraded using cyclone-resistant shelter designs made from local materials in order to reorganise and upgrade small camps along community cluster designs.
Emergency shelter, Site planning, Direct Bangladesh 1975 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.4
Guatemala, 1976, Earthquake 1976 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.05) Emergency: Earthquake in Guatemala
Summary: Housing materials were distributed, and training and advice were provided through locally hired teams. The aim of this was to accelerate reconstruction and provide community-wide training on seismic-resistant construction techniques.
Construction materials, Training Guatemala 1976 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.5
India, 1977, Cyclone 1977 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.06) Emergency: Cyclone in Andhra Pradesh, India
Summary: The distribution of basic kits of local materials, supplemented by materials for strengthening cyclone resistance, was supported by the inter-organisational creation of a special centre to provide technical training and information. The project was timed, and in some cases postponed, to ensure that labour was not diverted from agricultural tasks and to ensure the availability of appropriate materials.
Construction materials, Training India 1977 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.6
Thailand, 1979-1980, Conflict 1979-1980 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.07) Emergency:Invasion of Cambodia by Vietnam, December 1978
Summary: For the first time, clear numeric standards were introduced via the distribution of an operations policy and standards manual to each camp to ensure equitable minimum services, based primarily on public health and water/sanitation concerns. Two camps were planned according to these standards, using a decentralisation of services, and in later cases a ‘checkerboard’ design that provided internal space for some expansion.
Emergency shelter, Site planning, Guidelines / materials /mass communications, Direct, Technical expertise Thailand 1979 1980 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.7
Tonga, 1982, Cyclone 1982 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.08) Emergency: Cyclone Isaac, 3 March 1982
Summary: The settlement-focused ‘Quick Impact Projects’ gave responsibility and control to beneficiary villages. A parallel programme on disaster mitigation strategy offered the technical tools to ensure that the awareness of how to ‘build back safer’ would be incorporated into projects.
Construction materials, Training, Community, Technical expertise Tonga 1982 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.8
Sudan, 1985, Conflict 1985 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 (D.09) Emergency: Civil war and famine in Ethiopia (Eritrea and Tigray) 1983-1984
Summary: Relocating refugees from smaller camps gave time to create better sites and facilities in the larger camps built as part of the second stage. Building camps using a hierarchy of shelter groupings (cluster-block-sector) helped the humanitarian actors ensure support for the cycle of repatriation.
Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Site planning, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Sudan 1985 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2008 D.9
Afghanistan, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.01) Emergency: Afghanistan returns to Sozma Qala camp
Summary: An emergency team rapidly winterised a temporary transit camp. The site was for 379 families for refugees returned from Iran to their district of origin in northern Afghanistan. To improve the existing tents, a production line was set up in the camp to build bamboo and plastic sheeting shelters, which provided additional protection from severe winter weather. The structure was developed from a model implemented in Pakistan Administered Kashmir in 2006-2007
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Community Afghanistan 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.1
Afghanistan, 2002, Conflict 2002 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.02) See Shelter Projects 2008 (B.1)
Emergency: Afghanistan repatriation 2002-2008
Summary: A large scale, self-build. shelter programme implemented through partner organisations.
Update: This programme continued in 2009 and looks set to continue for many years to come. The lead organisation continued to develop detailed guidance for partner organisations.
Household items, Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Direct, Technical expertise Afghanistan 2002 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.2
DRC, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.04) Emergency: Ongoing armed conflict.
Summary: Multi-sectoral support to ‘Umoja’ (solidarity) hosting and hosted families following an influx of displaced people into Goma. Families were provided with materials for either repair or additions / extensions to existing housing, as well as key household items using a voucher system.
Household items, Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Technical expertise Dem. Rep. Congo 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.4
Eritrea, 2004, Conflict 2004 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.05) See Shelter Projects 2008 (A.2)
Emergency: IDPs in camps in Eritrea following Eritrea / Ethiopia conflict
Update: By mid-2008 Eritrea, officially, there were no conflict displaced people
in Eritrea. The government had resettled the last 11,000 living in camps in Debub. However, United Nations Development Programme in Eritrea reported in January 2009 that an unspecified number of displaced people were still living with host families.
Household items, Construction materials Eritrea 2004 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.5
Gaza, Palestine, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.06) Emergency: Conflict – “Operation Cast Lead”
Summary: The organisation implementing this project advised on the allocation of grants from families whose houses had been damaged or destroyed by the invasion of Gaza. 12,000 assessments were carried out with 5,000 found to be eligible from 29,000 applications. However, the blockade on Gaza meant that materials were not available for families to rebuild their homes.
Technical expertise, Urban Palestine 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.6
Georgia, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.07) Emergency: Conflict 8-12 August, 2008
Summary: Support of families whose homes had been damaged or destroyed during the conflict, in order that they could stay in their homes during the first winter. Building repairs and then the provision of a ‘one warm cottage’ was supplemented by distributions of NFIs and firewood.
Household items, Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Direct Georgia 2008 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.7
Kenya, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.09) Emergency: Kenyan election crisis, 2007-2008
Summary: Provision of transitional shelter kits as a pilot project in the Rift Valley of Kenya, before upscaling to a national response. Shelters were designed to be adapted by beneficiaries into permanent homes and, except in the case of vulnerable households, were erected by the beneficiaries themselves.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Technical expertise Kenya 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.9
Kenya, Dadaab, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.10) Emergency: Conflict - Somali refugee influx
Summary: Existing construction programmes were continued and scaled up. Following previous years’ shelter activities, a full evaluation of the number of shelters that could be built was conducted. It was agreed that security, logistics, and availabilty of sustainable materials limited construction to 3500 shelters per year as a maximum.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Kenya 2009 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.10
Kenya, Dadaab, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.11) Emergency: Ifo refugee camp flood response, Dadaab, Kenya 2007
Summary: A combination of shelter upgrading and emergency response funding assisted 500 families were to make bricks and build shelters. The project was implemented through a community-based construction program following flooding in a large refugee camp.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Community, Direct, Technical expertise Kenya 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.11
Liberia, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.12) Emergency: Liberian returnees, 2007.
Summary: Shelter assistance for vulnerable returnees (IDP and refugees). Building materials were provided and cash incentives given to communities for construction. The agency provided technical support and close project monitoring in collaboration with the community.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Technical expertise Liberia 2007 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.12
Rwanda, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.13) See Shelter Projects 2008 (A.7)
Emergency: Forced repatriation of people of ‘Rwandan origin’ from Tanzania to Rwanda
Update: In 2009, 119 returnee families from Tanzania were still living in the Kiyanzi camp. A project had been
initiated to build 110 houses, a permanent shelter solution for beneficiaries who had poor access to both water
and health services in the camp.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Direct, Technical expertise Rwanda 2008 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.13
Somalia, 2008, Conflict 2008 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2009 (A.14) OVERVIEW
Summary: Since 1991, Somalia has remained without a central government and has been in a state of intense factional fighting and civil war. Chronic insecurity and periods of drought have led to massive displacement of populations. By 2009 there were more than 1.3 million internally displaced people in Somalia, with nearly 100,000 people newly displaced in the months of May and June 2009.
Urban Somalia 2008 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2009 A.14
Somalia, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.15) Emergency: Somalia conflict 1991 onwards. Project implementation 2008 onwards
Summary: To meet the shelter needs of displaced people living in urban temporary settlements in the cities of Galkayo and Bosasso in Somalia, multiple approaches to shelter were used. To reduce risk of fire, fire breaks were made, sites were cleaned up, safe cooking areas were established and stoves were distributed. To meet shelter needs tents were designed and distributed. Additional support was provided in sanitation, hygiene
promotion, and the construction of latrines.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Urban Somalia 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.15
Somalia, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.16) Emergency: 1991 onwards. Project implementation 2008
Summary: In dense urban settlements in Hargeisa, 634 transitional shelters were constructed in two temporary settlements. The project was implemented by two local partner NGOs. The construction was accompanied by improving site planning with access roads and by sanitation activites, implmented by other organisations.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Direct, Technical expertise, Urban Somalia 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.16
Somalia, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.17) See Shelter Projects 2008 (A.8)
Emergency: Somalia civil conflict – 1991 onwards (chronic emergency)
Core housing / progressive shelter, Technical expertise, Urban Somalia 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.17
Sri Lanka, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 (A.18) See Shelter Projects 2008 (B.12)
Emergency: Civil Conflict in Sri Lanka
Update: The ‘core shelter’ design and methodology was taken on by other NGO’s providing shelter in the areas of return. In total over 1100 of the shelters were constructed across Trincomalee district
by five different organisations. The design has further evolved to meet the demands of the government in regard to the resettlement in the North of the Sri Lanka.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Technical expertise Sri Lanka 2007 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2009 A.18
Sudan, Darfur, 2004, Conflict 2004 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (A.19) See Shelter Projects 2008 (A.9)
Emergency: Displacement due to conflict in Darfur, Sudan, 2004 (ongoing).
Update: A monitoring report from 2008 showed plastic sheeting to be the most valuable commodity. Affected families expressed their concerns about the quality of some of the plastic sheeting and the quantity (one sheet is distributed per household). A survey showed that just 4% of non food items and 20% of plastic sheets distributed more than a year previously were still used by the recipients.
Household items, Construction materials Sudan 2004 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 A.19
Bangladesh, 2009, Cyclone 2009 Cyclone Overview Shelter Projects 2009 (B.01) Emergency: Cyclone Aila
Summary: Critically, Aila destroyed more than 700 km of coastal embankments. After five months, over 200,000 people were still living in very basic temporary shelters, unable to return because their homesteads were still under water. One year later, repair of the embankments was far from complete. As a result of lack of land and funds, there were far fewer reconstruction support programmes than there had been for Cyclone Sidr, and thousands of families remained more vulnerable to future flooding.
Bangladesh 2009 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2009 B.1
Bangladesh, 2007, Cyclone 2007 Cyclone Overview Shelter Projects 2009 (B.02) Emergency: Cyclone Sidr
Summary: Cyclone Sidr hit the south-western coast of Bangladesh during the evening of November 15th 2007. Cyclone Sidr destroyed over 450,000 houses across 30 districts, through wind damage, flooding and tidal surge. More than 50 percent of households in all of the six worst affected districts were either damaged or destroyed.
Bangladesh 2007 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2009 B.2
Bangladesh, 2007, Cyclone 2007 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.03) Emergency: Cyclone Sidr
Summary: To meet the housing needs of 1250 cyclone affected families, a programme working in many sectors of support was conducted. Families were identified through a detailed but slow transparent validation process. Families received a house, toolkits, cash and training.
Household items, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Direct, Technical expertise Bangladesh 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.3
China, Sichuan, 2008, Earthquake 2008 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.04) Emergency: Sichuan Earthquake
Summary: Cash grants were distributed to around 63,000 rural households who fulfilled the selection criteria in Mianzhu County, Sichuan. Each household received the equivalent of 450 USD or 1500 USD (CNY 3,000 or 10,000) to help them to reconstruct earthquake damaged homes and housing related needs. As with most other aspects of the response, the government led on construction monitoring and training.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Community, Contracted, Technical expertise China 2008 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.4
Haiti, 2008, Floods 2008 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.06) Emergency: Hurricanes and tropical storms
Summary: These shelter projects were in the complex urban environment of Gonaives, Haiti. Multiple approaches were used to support families living in collective centres and temporary sites to return. Initially programmes focussed on distributions of shelter items and toolkits. Later programmes diversified to include cash to support families that were renting, and shelter materials and support for those who had identified land.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Technical expertise, Urban Haiti 2008 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.6
Italy, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2009 (B.12) OVERVIEW
Summary: The earthquake of April 6th 2009 was the deadliest to hit Italy since 1980, and the first major earthquake in 300 years to hit the Abruzzo region. The town of L’Aquila was severely affected and is a historic town known for its university and the arts.
Italy 2009 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2009 B.12
Italy, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.13) Emergency: Earthquake in Abruzzo region.
Summary: The organisation used contractors to build three different sizes and designs of shelter for 100 families affected by the earthquake. This was a pilot programme, from which the government designed a programme to house an additional 3475 families. The government led the overall shelter process limiting the inputs of the disaster affected families, whilst the organisation, facilitated discussions to encourage involvement of the earthquake affectees.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Contracted, Urban Italy 2009 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.13
Myanmar, 2008, Cyclone 2008 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.15) Emergency: Cyclone Nargis
Summary: The relief phase of this programme was a large-scale distribution programme of plastic sheeting and tool kits. Two plastic sheets were given to each family, and each tool kit was shared by five families. It was followed by programmes to support smaller numbers of families to build their shelters and build cyclone resistant community buildings.
Construction materials, Cash / vouchers, Direct Myanmar 2008 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.15
Uganda, 2007, Floods 2007 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (B.25) Emergency: Floods
Summary: 10,000 plastic sheets were distributed during the relief phase. These were for temporary roofing materials in the absence of grass, and were also used to prevent rain from destroying walls and moulded bricks. To ensure that communities rebuilt more flood resistant shelters, both communal and individual tool kits were distributed. These were combined with a large scale public information program on building back safer.
As the traditional building season was three months after the floods, during the dry season, the project had components of water, sanitation and agriculture. The approach taken was to work through community mobilisation.
Construction materials, Community, Technical expertise Uganda 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 B.25
Algeria, 1980, Earthquake 1980 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.02) Emergency: Earthquake (Richter 7.3) El Asnam Algeria
Summary: One day after the earthquake, the Algerian President formed an Inter-Ministerial Reconstruction Commission. It was charged with three tasks (in order of priority):
1. save lives, prevent epidemic diseases, establish tent campsites; 2. evaluate losses, protect property; 3. prepare for reconstruction, noting the experiences of other earthquake-prone areas
Urgent attention was given to provide tents and shelter materials and campsites due to impending winter conditions. The affected opulation was asked by the government to occupy campsites for one year pending provision of temporary prefabricated housing. This promise was kept (EI Asnam town).
Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Direct, Technical expertise Algeria 1980 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.2
Guatemala, 1976, Earthquake 1976 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.04) Emergency: Guatemla earthquake
Summary: No clear policy on shelter emerged in the initial weeks following the earthquake. The Reconstruction Commission allocated towns and villages to the very large number of relief agencies. The Government planned to build 100,000 temporary houses with military support, but there was little follow-up. Many agencies adopted a policy of providing corrugated iron sheeting (lamina) which could serve as emergency shelter, and subsequently as permanent lightweight roofing. These programmes developed from week I onwards.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter Guatemala 1976 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.4
Haiti, 1982, Hurricane 1982 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.06) Emergency: Hurricane Allen
Summary: This report was written by Fred Cuny / Intertect in 1982. It summarises the different types of housing in southern Haiti. It goes on to suggest low-cost improvements that can be made to the houses in southern Haiti. Although the suggested housing upgrade programmes were not implemented, the suggestions remain relevant today. Illustrations from the document were copied for public information literature following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
Guidelines / materials /mass communications Haiti 1982 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.6
Honduras, 1974, Hurricane 1974 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.08) Emergency: Hurricane Fifi
Summary: Eight large refugee camps were established. The largest was built in Choloma to house 318 families (1,831 people). In addition there were improvised shelters. The extended family system does not appear to have functioned effectively. Existing buildings, such as schools, were used as temporary shelter.
Emergency shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning Honduras 1974 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.8
India, 1977, Cyclone 1977 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.10) Emergency: Cyclone 1977
Summary: The climate was warm and the monsoon season not imminent, so shelter needs were not a high priority, The Government made stocks of thatch and bamboo readily available for families to improvise shelters, and repair or rebuild their homes. An international non-governmental organisation, worked through Indian voluntary agencies to build 7,000 shelters in 90 days.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter India 1977 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.10
Nicaragua, 1972, Earthquake 1972 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.14) Emergency: 7.5 magnitude earthquake Managua, Nicaragua
Summary: The government policy was to evacuate Managua city centre. The reasons given were the risks of looting and epidemics. The government provided campsites, in Masaya and outskirts of anagua, and assisted in building wooden huts for 11,600 families. Initially, urvivors tended to ignore government action, preferring to stay with friends and relatives.
Nicaragua 1972 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.14
Turkey, 1976, Earthquake 1976 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.19) Emergency: Earthquake Caldiran (Van) Turkey
Summary: Survivors were encouraged by the government to move away from the affected area. One designated area was the Aegean coast. Prefabricated frame houses built with asbestos panels and timber were constructed after winter.
Tents were provided to accommodate families during the harsh winter conditions until prefabricated housing could commence in April 1977. Building work was not possible during the winter. There were difficulties in obtaining winterized tents, as the entire world stockpile was inadequate.
Turkey 1976 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.19
Turkey, 1975, Earthquake 1975 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.20) Emergency: Earthquake 1975
Summary: The emergency shelter policy was to provide over 3600 tents through the Turkish Red Crescent, and to accelerate reconstruction. Voluntary Agencies followed their own policies, e.g. the Oxfam built 463 igloos. The Ministry of Reconstruction and Resettlement moved the town of Lice 2 km to the south due to the risk of rockfalls at the old site.
The housing policy was to provide prefabricated homes, not to rebuild in local building tradition. The town of Lice was planned for an eventual population of 20,000, which was twice the pre-earthquake total.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter Turkey 1975 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.20
Turkey, 1970, Earthquake 1970 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.21) Emergency: 7.2 magnitude earthquake Gediz Turkey
Summary: In Gediz temporary shelter was used only for a very short period. in Ackaalan 400 polyeurythane domes were built and occupiedt. Imported labour was used for the clearing rubble.
The Government decided to rebuild Gediz 5 km to the south of the destroyed town. The town of Ackaalan was rebuilt on the original site. The government built 9100 apartments in three years.
Emergency shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure Turkey 1970 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.21
UK, 1945, Conflict 1945 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.22) Emergency: World War 2
Summary: To meet the housing crisis of 1945 at the end of the second world war, the British government built 156,600 prefabricated houses as a temporary measure over the space of three years. 65 years later, many of these houses are still occupied. However the houses were comparatively expensive, and the programme failed to address the underlying issues of land ownership.
Core housing / progressive shelter, Infrastructure United Kingdom 1945 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.22
Yugoslavia-Ex, 1963, Earthquake 1963 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2009 (C.23) Emergency: 6.9 Richter scale earthquake Skopje, Yugoslavia
Summary: A national preparedness organisation assumed control and implemented an evacuation policy. 150,000 women and children left the city within 3 weeks; 60,000 men were available for cleaning, repairing and erecting housing; 1,900 prefabricated ‘temporary’ houses were built by international organisations; they were intended for eventual agricultural use.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Infrastructure Macedonia 1963 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2009 C.23
Afghanistan, 2010, Conflict 2010 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2010 (A.01) Emergency: Afghanistan returns to Sozma Qala camp
Summary: An emergency team rapidly winterised a temporary transit camp. The site was for 379 families of refugees returning after 23 years. Two years later 320 families remained at the site with dwindling funding for external support. To improve the existing tents, weather mitigating tent structures (WMTS) were built from bamboo and plastic sheeting. They lasted for more than two years - longer than expected.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Site planning Afghanistan 2010 Conflict Update Shelter Projects 2010 A.1
Chile, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.02) Emergency: Earthquake
Summary: Following a non-food item distribution to 10,000 households, plastic cards with magnetic strips were given to earthquake affected households. These cards were valid for 30 days from manufacture and could be redeemed in 40 pre-designated hardware stores located in the affected regions.
Household items, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Chile 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.2
Grenada, 2010, Hurricane 2010 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.03) Emergency: Hurricane Ivan (Cat. 4) & Hurricane Emily (Cat. 1)
Summary: Over 2 years, the roofs of over 650 houses were repaired and 100 homes were built from scratch. 128 people were trained and certified as carpenters, over 2,000 houses were strengthened with hurricane straps and 32 communities were better prepared to face the next disaster.
Construction materials, Housing repair and retrofitting, Training Grenada 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.3
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2010 (A.04-11) Emergency: 2010 Earthquake
Summary: That hundreds of thousands of Haitians still face the very real prospect of remaining in camps during the upcoming 2012 hurricane season, and perhaps beyond, speaks volumes about the challenges of delivering humanitarian shelter assistance and housing reconstruction in Haiti - and elsewhere.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Site planning, Training, Structural assessment, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2010 A.4-11
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake 6 Case studies Shelter Projects 2010 (A.04-11) Emergency: 2010 Earthquake
A.5: This project provided different forms of support for people with differing needs. In the emergency phase the organisation distributed 10,000 emergency shelter kits.
A.6: The programme provided safe and improved housing which helped people to leave the camps and allowed them to restart the recovery process. The programme included: 1) damage assessment, 2) house repairs 3) public communication and training manuals 4) training.
A.7: This organisation ran several projects focused on supporting economic, social, and political recovery. Shelter assistance was delivered through a variety of “shelter solutions”, including traditional wooden framed transitional shelter construction, steel framed transitional shelter construction, supporting host families through a livelihoods-based incentive system, and the removal of rubble.
A.8: This project built progressive shelter in two phases: a first emergency response (structure covered with tarpaulin) and a second durable solution (permanent housing with cement cladding). The project included safer construction awareness activities and safer construction trainings.
A.9: Families were relocated from a spontaneous settlement in the Haitian capital to a new planned camp in an area called Corail 20km away.
A.10: The project targeted displaced disabled people in rural locations in the south of Haiti. The project used a participatory approach to build durable shelters. The project re-engineered a well known traditional technique known as clissade making it more durable, suitable for mass assembly and later upgrade by beneficiaries.
A.11: The project supported people to leave overcrowded camps and encouraged them to lead their own recovery process. It provided transitional shelters for those with land, cash for those who needed to rent, and relocation grants for those who moved to different areas.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Site planning, Training, Structural assessment, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.4-11
Indonesia, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2010 (A.12-A.15) Emergency:
Summary:
Household items, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Structural assessment Indonesia 2009 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2010 A.12-A.15
Indonesia, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2010 (A.12-A.15) Overview summary: The Government of Indonesia responded rapidly, with the assistance of the national and international humanitarian community. Whilst non-government agencies focused on emergency shelter, distributing an average of 2 tarpaulins per family, the government focused on rebuilding provincial government capacity, search and rescue and emergency relief. The emergency phase was declared over within 8 weeks.
A.13: This project surveyed brick production and anticipated supply and demand. It was conducted one month after the earthquake. The survey was conducted as a trial of the EMMA (Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis) methodology. The survey findings were used to inform the adopted strategy of using cash to support the construction of shelters that used both timber and bricks.
A.14: Cash was distributed to allow 750 families to build transitional shelters. It built on the initial emergency shelter response in West Sumatra in which a package of shelter materials, toolkits, common household supplies and basic hygiene items had been supplied to 30,000 families. Each beneficiary household received approximately 275 USD and technical training on safe construction and minimum standards for shelter. A partner organisation provided technical advice on construction.
A.15: An international non-government organisation working through a local partner provided cash grants for shelter. Conditional cash grants were given to 3,400 families in two instalments. The local partner used six mobilisers to give technical support. Beneficiaries paid for materials and labour to build timber homes.
Household items, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Structural assessment Indonesia 2009 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.12-A.15
Kyrgyzstan, 2010, Conflict 2010 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.16) Emergency: Civil disturbances
Summary: Working through international partner organisations, the lead agency was able to build 1,668 seismically resistant winterised homes in time for winter. Homes were rebuilt using locally procured materials on the foundations of destroyed properties. Teams of engineers, foremen, community mobilisers were hired to ensure that all families received the material and technical expertise needed.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers Kyrgyzstan 2010 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.16
Malawi, 2009, Earthquake 2009 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.17) Emergency: Earthquake
Summary: The project provided materials, cash grants and training to build and repair houses. The project led to national guidelines on safer house construction that were adopted by the government. The project also provided psychological support, hygiene promotion, sanitation facilities for households and schools, and disseminated better building practice.
Construction materials, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Malawi 2009 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.17
Mozambique, 2007, Cyclone 2007 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.18) Emergency: Cyclone Favio
Summary: The project identified and tested innovative small-scale mitigation interventions for cyclones. It used participatory approaches and focused on local capacity building in vulnerable pilot areas. The major focus of the project was to disseminate the initiative and prepare the conditions for future replication. It also built 10 cyclone shelters.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Advocacy / legal, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Mozambique 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.18
Myanmar, 2008, Cyclone 2008 Cyclone 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2010 (A.19-20) Emergency: Cyclone Nargis
A.19: 850 shelters were built and 800 shelters were retrofitted. All 1,650 shelters were provided with a latrine and a ceramic jar for water collection. The project aimed to address multiple issues of security, shelter recovery, livelihoods and future disaster resilience to provide a sustainable and holistic solution for the affected population. The project was implemented through the “People’s Process” where people organise themselves to identify and prioritise their needs and together take decisions on their recovery.
A.20: The project constructed 533 shelters by providing materials and carpenters, and was in response to a review one year after the cyclone which found many families remaining in poor shelter. The project had a significant training component, but had significant issues with procurement of materials of suitable quality.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Myanmar 2008 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.19-20
Pakistan, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.21) Emergency: IDP crisis
Summary: The lead organisation worked with six partners and established community committees (jirga) to provide shelter for people returning to damaged or destroyed houses. Kits for constructing transitional shelters, including a kitchen and latrine, were distributed. Households were given cash towards the construction cost on completion of their house.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Training, Structural assessment, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Pakistan 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.21
Pakistan, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods Overview Shelter Projects 2010 (A.22-25) Emergency: 2010 floods
Overview: The 2010 monsoon season caused the worst flooding in Pakistan’s history, and one of the larger humanitarian crises of this century. The floods affected every province, over half of the districts in Pakistan, and one-tenth of Pakistan’s population. They damaged or destroyed 1.8 million homes, from the mountainous north where winters are cold, to the south where flooding caused the most damage. The scale was vast, but the funds did not meet the needs.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Pakistan 2010 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2010 A.22-25
Pakistan, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods 3 Case studies Shelter Projects 2010 (A.22-25) Emergency: 2010 floods
A.22: Overview.
A.23: This pilot project built 175 one room shelters for flood affected families in South Pakistan. It was later followed by a much larger scale project (building thousands of shelters over 18 months). Working through partners, the agency provided the construction materials and paid for skilled labour. Each shelter was built from burnt brick and had an accompanying kitchen and latrine.
A.24: This large scale project provided cash to provide households with the means to buy materials and hire labour. Each household received the cash in 3 tranches. Each payment was made when a group of up to 25 households constructed to an agreed level. Payments were made via an agreed focal point for each group of households. The project was managed by 44 Implementing Partners spread over 3 provinces, most of them local agencies.
A.25: Provision of ‘One Room Core Shelter’ for flood affected vulnerable families in Jacobabad, Sindh Province, Pakistan. This project used a staged voucher system for beneficiaries to source all materials and to pay labour. This reduced logistical delays and greatly increased beneficiary participation. The design incorporated some disaster risk reduction considerations whilst still using predominantly local materials and practices.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Pakistan 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.22-25
Philippines, 2010, Cyclone 2010 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.26) Emergency: Typhoon Megi
Summary: Vouchers were distributed to provide materials for the repair of 9,953 shelters. Two types of vouchers were tried. Initially people could choose from a given list of materials. Due to supply issues the project was adjusted so that people could choose the materials that they wanted up to a given value and from an approved list of suppliers. Families also received information on how to reinforce their homes against typhoons.
Housing repair and retrofitting Philippines 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.26
Romania, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.27) Emergency: Heavy rain and flooding
Summary: This project mobilised 497 volunteers to help build and repair half of the homes damaged by the floods. It also built or repaired three schools. It managed to use donated materials and supplied families with materials and technical assistance to support self-help home repairs and renovations.
Construction materials, Housing repair and retrofitting Romania 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.27
Sri Lanka, 2009, Conflict 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.28) Emergency: Population movement due to civil war
Summary: This owner-driven programme provided cash to support people to build houses damaged or destroyed by the conflict. The project aimed to contribute to the sustainable rehabilitation and reconstruction in the north of Sri Lanka. It primarily supported people who have been displaced who were resettling after the conflict.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers Sri Lanka 2009 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.28
Tajikistan, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.29) Emergency: Earthquake
Summary: This project helped to rebuild communities affected by earthquakes in the Kumsangir district. It also aimed to help prepare remote rural communities against further earthquakes and mud slides. The project used alternative and affordable construction technologies and provided loans to help families to rebuild or repair their homes.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Loans, Training Tajikistan 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.29
Tonga, 2010, Tsunami 2010 Tsunami Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.30) Emergency: Tsunami
Summary: This project provided cyclone resistant transitional shelter, water supply and sanitation to 74 families who lost their homes and elected to remain on Niuatoputapu, while waiting for assistance to re-build permanent housing. The tsunami had destroyed the houses of more than half the island’s population. The shelter materials and construction teams were imported from an island 600km away.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter Tonga 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.30
Vietnam, 2009, Typhoon 2009 Typhoon Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (A.31) Emergency: Typhoon Ketsana and Typhoon Mirinae
Summary: This permanent shelter project was implemented as part of the recovery phase of the typhoon Ketsana response. 650 households who had lost their homes were supported through cash grants to rebuild storm/flood resistant houses. A technical consultant was hired to support a national organisation to organise trainings on safe housing, develop house designs and supervise the construction of houses.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers Vietnam 2009 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 A.31
Sphere Project Global Standards, 2011 2011 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2010 (B.01) Summary: The third revision of the Sphere Handbook was released in 2011. It built upon the previous two editions and
contained a section on “Minimum Standards in Shelter, Settlement and Non-Food Items”. This chapter is the
closest there is to consensus in humanitarian sheltering practices, and is available for download free of charge
from www.sphereproject.org.
Advocacy / legal, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2011 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2010 B.1
USA, 1906, Earthquake 1906 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2010 (B.02) Emergency: San Francisco earthquake and fire
Summary: Following the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, shelter was initially provided in tents and with the distribution of household items. Formal camps were established and cottages built, which people living in them were allowed to rent and purchase at a subsidised rate. Reconstruction for some households was supported through a system of grants and loans.
Household items, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Loans, Site planning, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications United States 1906 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2010 B.2
Afghanistan, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.01) Emergency: Conflict returns
Summary: This project addressed the poor living conditions of recent refugee-returnees, IDPs and host families through the construction of 295 semi-permanent shelters with household latrines and hygiene promotion. Cash grants gave beneficiaries an active role in the project and allowed the organisation’s staff to spend more time with the community rather than managing contractors. The pilot phase of the project was successful and was scaled up to target a further 2,075 households.
Construction materials, Support for host families, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Infrastructure, Training Afghanistan 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.1
Burkina Faso, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.02) Emergency: Férério Refugee Camp, Oudalan Province
Summary: This project provided temporary shelters for nomadic Tuareg refugees displaced from northern Mali to the Oudalan Province in Burkina Faso. Shelters were built through a self-help construction approach using traditional construction materials. Participation in the selection of the type of shelter to be provided was crucial since the refugees had already rejected other proposed solutions by other agencies. The project worked within the cultural norms of a Tuareg population where women were the main constructors of tents, and families moved their shelters according to nomadic traditions to increase spacing between shelters and tribal groups.
Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Cash / vouchers, Site planning Burkina Faso 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.2
Colombia, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.03) Emergency: Department of Chocó
Summary: The project used community participation to improve the overall living conditions of 80 families who were struggling to survive following flooding. It supported a total of 5,527 people in surrounding villages with disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities. Stilt construction was used to build 80 new houses and a 2.5m high, 1.1km long footbridge. Disaster preparedness activities, first aid, hygiene promotion and safe construction trainings were also provided. The project is now an example, both at regional and national level, of what can be done to support riverside communities to mitigate the effects of recurrent floods.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Advocacy / legal, Infrastructure, Training Colombia 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.3
Côte d’Ivoire, 2010-2011, Conflict 2010-2011 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.04-06) Emergency: Post-election crisis
Overview A.4: Support for returnees by international organisations focused on rebuilding communities as well as houses. About 30 per cent of the 24,000 households whose houses had been damaged or destroyed were targeted by the coordinated interagency response. About one third of those assisted were in spontaneous sites.
Côte d'Ivoire 2010 2011 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.4-06
Côte d’Ivoire, 2010-2011, Conflict 2010-2011 Conflict 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.04-06) Emergency: Post-election crisis
A.4: Overview
A.5: The lead organisation worked with three partners to provide houses for vulnerable returnees, whose house was damaged by the post-electoral crisis. The project had the goal to sustainably improve the living conditions of returned households by providing one shelter per household. At the end of the project over 1,130 houses were built or rehabilitated by one of the three partners.
A.6: This shelter intervention built 1,341 shelters, supporting participation at the household and community levels through self-help groups and shelter committees. The shelter design used abundant local resources and promoted a design well known by the beneficiary households and local builders. The goal of the project was to contribute to the return process through shelter rehabilitation for the most vulnerable households.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Advocacy / legal, Training Côte d'Ivoire 2010 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.4-06
DRC, 2002, Volcano 2002 Volcano Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.07) Emergency: Goma volcano eruption in 2002
Summary: This case study summarises an assessment by a major donor of the transitional shelter and recovery programming that it funded in Goma following the volcanic eruption in 2002. The assessment was conducted ten years after the initial response. The assessment found that transitional shelter did help to facilitate the transition to permanent housing, and became a base for many livelihood activities. It also found lasting impacts from both the settlements approach taken and from the supporting activities to help people in Goma to “live with risk”.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Dem. Rep. Congo 2002 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.7
Ethiopia (Assosa), 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.08) Emergency: Sudan and South Sudan conflict. Bambasi camp, Assosa
Summary: The organisation planned and built a camp for Sudanese refugees. Semi-permanent shelters were constructed by refugees, with two partner organisations providing materials, carpenters and training. Refugees were able to chose their own plot configuration and the shelters were constructed with locally procured materials.
Construction materials, Tools, Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure, Training Ethiopia 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.8
Ethiopia (Dollo Ado), 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.09) Emergency: Conflict and drought in Somalia
Summary: Four organisations built semi-permanent shelters for Somali refugees living in the camps at Dollo Ado. Each organisation set up production lines in the camps to prefabricate the components. The projects worked within the constraints of challenging logistics and very different social environments between camps. The shelter design was selected following a consultative process during which different options were shared with camp residents.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Site planning Ethiopia 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.9
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.10-13) Emergency: Earthquake 2010. Rental Support Cash Grants overview.
Overview: Early indications are that rental support cash grants have been successful. A survey of households that have completed their year of rental subsidy found that all of the respondents (90% of the total caseload) had been able to organise their own housing for the foreseeable future. None had returned to camps or moved to informal settlements.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Infrastructure, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.10-13
Haiti, 2010, Earthquake 2010 Earthquake 3 Case studies Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.10-13) Emergency:
A.10: Overview
A.11: The project offered several service packages, including rental assistance, transitional shelter construction and repairs to damaged homes, to incentivise families to leave camps and find suitable housing solutions. Central to this project were life skills training, household livelihood planning, temporary health insurance and psychosocial services. Over one year, the project closed all five camps that were targeted and helped more than 1,200 families resettle.
A.12: This project worked in rural areas of Haiti beginning with an in-depth assessment of local building practices. Builders were then trained in improvements to existing construction. This was followed by building assessment and repair construction programme resulting in the construction of 500 houses to date. The overall project goal was to improve local communities’ resilience to hazards and to improve living conditions through housing improvements and construction-based economic stimulus.
A.13: The organisation used the Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness (PASSA) process to support the community make the transition to neighbourhood recovery. A range of participatory activities were carried out to decide both a comprehensive community plan for reconstruction, and a detailed list of related programme activities by the organisation. The identification of problems and solutions enabled the community to make plans for their own long-term recovery activities.
Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Infrastructure, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Haiti 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.10-13
Japan, 2011, Earthquake/Tsunami 2011 Earthquake/Tsunami Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.14) Emergency: Earthquake and Tsunami
Summary: This project provided cash assistance to repair 150 houses after the tsunami in Japan. It was mainly targeted at families unable to apply for the government’s Emergency Repair Aid and for those who required further assistance on top of the government’s aid package. The project provided an information and support centre with outreach to support 1155 households. This service provided information to those who had difficulty in accessing other sources of information, primarily the elderly or people living alone.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Structural assessment Japan 2011 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.14
Kenya-Dadaab, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.15) Emergency: July 2011 famine and continuing conflict
Summary: Following a massive influx of Somali refugees to the camps at Dadaab in Kenya, two new camps were planned and built. Camp services were set-up and a refugee-led committee was established to manage the camps. Planning was for 200,000 people, but poor security and lack of government recognition meant that far fewer people settled at the sites. The majority of families were sheltered in tents. Later shelters were built with plastic sheet on timber frames. As families became established, many built their own structures. After some initial construction, use of Interlocking Stabilised Soil Blocks (ISSB) was prohibited by the government.
Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure Kenya 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.15
Lebanon, 2007, Conflict 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.16) Emergency: Palestinian refugees
Summary: The organisation ran a series of projects since 2005 to improve the shelter standards of Palestinian refugees living in “gatherings”. Structured repairs focusing on roofs were conducted with associated water and sanitation improvements. Eight gatherings in the Saida area were targeted with around 25 per cent of the shelters repaired. The organisation also carried out other rehabilitations in other parts of Lebanon during the same period. Many of the initial lessons learnt were adopted by other organisations in subsequent responses.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Structural assessment Lebanon 2007 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.16
Lebanon, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.17) Emergency: Syrian conflict
Summary: This project rehabilitated houses where people fleeing from Syria were hosted. It also made quick repairs to winterise dwellings and distributed non-food items, including stoves and fuel. Particular care was taken with targetting of affected populations through detailed social and structural assessments of hosting arrangements. Assessments were followed by phased cash payments for host families to make repairs. As refugee numbers continued to rise, the organisation conducted pilot cash for rent and transitional shelter construction projects.
Support for host families, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Structural assessment Lebanon 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.17
Madagascar, 2012, Cyclone 2012 Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.18) Emergency: Intense tropical storm Giovanna and moderate tropical storm Irina
Summary: This project formed community committees to select beneficiaries and monitor the building of 599 houses in rural locations. Close monitoring by beneficiaries allowed a degree of remote management of the project to improve quality in a difficult to access area. The project aimed to build safer shelters using local materials.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Madagascar 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.18
Nicaragua, 2007, Hurricane 2007 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.19) Emergency: Hurricane Felix
Summary: This project was implemented in the context of a poorly funded response and recovery operations for the 2007 hurricane in Nicaragua. The organisation chose to focus its limited budget on providing improved shelter conditions for nearly the entire population of one of the most affected villages. The project included physically re-planning the settlement, building 150 new core houses, and training community leaders and work crews.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning, Training Nicaragua 2007 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.19
Pakistan, 2010, Floods 2010 Floods 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.20-21) Emergency: 2010 Floods
A.20: The organisation established national coordination across 7 provinces in response to large scale floods, with the purpose of addressing gaps and increasing the effectiveness of the humanitarian response. The organisation established a national coordination team that managed a wide range of issues through a system of Strategic Advisory Groups (SAGs) and Technical Working Groups (TWIGs). It also appointed different organisations as lead coordinators in the different provinces. District level coordination proved difficult and slow to establish, but lessons were leant for the following 2011–2012 floods.
A.21: The project provided shelter, food security and disaster resilience assistance to flood-affected communities in Sindh province. 5,350 families were provided with materials, labour and trainings to enable households to rebuild their shelters. The project design was designed on community-based Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) principles, but the constraints of a short project timescale and high target numbers made this challenging.
Tools, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Advocacy / legal, Infrastructure, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Pakistan 2010 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.20-21
Pakistan, 2011, Floods 2011 Floods 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.22-23) Emergency: 2011 Floods
A.22: The organisation worked with 27 implementing partners to deliver shelter at scale. The project provided cash to households to build their own shelters. It aimed to increase the resilience of communities by increasing the quality of technical input, incorporating more disaster risk reduction (DRR) components, monitoring to ensure compliance, and supporting the construction of safer shelters to catalyse self-recovery. This was achieved through knowledge and cash transfers to enable households to make choices based on their needs and priorities.
A.23: The organisation provided research, training, assessment, design, technical assistance and construction monitoring and mentoring support to 7,500 households (to an additional 17,500 later) following the 2011 floods. Based on the organisation’s experience in disaster-affected areas since the 2005 earthquake, the project focused on developing improved vernacular construction through the use of low-cost sustainable building materials and training. The organisation provided technical guidance based on its programme “Build Back Safer with Vernacular Methodologies”, leading to stronger and safer structures that have withstood hazards.
Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Advocacy / legal, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Pakistan 2011 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.22-23
Peru, 2012, Floods 2012 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.24) Emergency: Floods and landslides
Summary: Tents and non-food items were provided to families who had lost their homes as a result of landslides. The tents and family kits were shipped into the country from international pre-positioning locations in coordination with the local disaster management authorities. The entire distribution project lasted 6 weeks.
Household items, Tools, Emergency shelter, Training Peru 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.24
Philippines, 2011, Cyclone 2011 Cyclone Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.25-27) Emergency: Tropical Storm Washi (Sendong)
Overview: In late 2011, over 39,000 houses were damaged and over 400,000 people were displaced by winds, floods and landslides following tropical storm Washi (also known as Sendong). Collective centres were established and non-food items were distributed in the first phase of the response.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Advocacy / legal, Site planning, Infrastructure, Training Philippines 2011 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.25-27
Philippines, 2011, Cyclone 2011 Cyclone 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.25-27) Emergency: Tropical Storm Washi (Sendong)
A.25: Overview
A.26: The organisation implemented an urban transitional settlement programme building 1,823 transitional shelters. Many complex issues arose, including land and property rights, zoning issues, high-risk settlements and providing shelter solutions to those without land rights. This programme demonstrated the importance of and challenges to acquiring land for transitional settlements.
A.27: The organisation distributed 5,000 shelter repair kits and built 6,000 housing units for displaced families. It built the houses with services on new relocation sites using contractors, volunteers and working with partners. It deployed three construction mobilisation units for the repair and restoration of houses and communities damaged by the storm.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting, Advocacy / legal, Site planning, Infrastructure, Training Philippines 2011 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.25-27
Somalia, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.28) Emergency: July 2011 Famine and Continuing conflict
Summary: The Tri-Cluster project is a coordinated group of 16 projects implemented by 14 partners across the sectors of shelter, WASH and health. Zona K in Magadishu was chosen as the target area as it had the densest concentration of IDPs and was the least likely IDP settlement to be evicted once Mogadishu stabilised and developed. The project goal was to improve the protection for displaced people living in Zona K through improved settlement planning and the provision of integrated services from multiple sectors.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure Somalia 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.28
Republic of South Sudan, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.29) Emergency: Post-war reconstruction
Summary: The project supported reintegration of returnees. It constructed 8,300 shelters on new land plots provided by the government. Basic urban services such as school buildings and boreholes, were constructed through parallel programmes. Two shelter designs were employed: bamboo and thatched-roof shelters (6,800) that could be built quickly to respond to large-scale returns and compressed mud block shelters with CGI sheet roofs (1,500) to provide more durable structures.
Construction materials, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure, Training S. Sudan 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.29
Thailand, 2011, Floods 2011 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.30) Emergency: 2011 Floods
Summary: During the 2011 floods in Thailand, social media became a crucial tool for information-sharing and decision-making, both for those affected by the floods and for agencies responding to needs.
Guidelines / materials /mass communications Thailand 2011 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.30
Tunisia, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.31) Emergency: Conflict in Libya
Summary: A transit camp was established to assist refugees and migrants fleeing the conflict in Libya. The camp was rapidly established in partnership with the Tunisian authorities and housed a population with more than 60 nationalities mostly for only short periods. The camp management worked closely with organisations providing support for the repatriation of displaced people to ensure that people had a smooth transit from the camp to return locations.
Household items, Emergency shelter Tunisia 2011 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.31
USA, 1871, Fire 1871 Fire Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (A.32) Emergency: Great Chicago Fire
Summary: The response included non-food item distribution, the building of barracks and one-room shelter construction. The response was administered by the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, a voluntary body, first established with the aim of supporting the poor in areas that the local authorities could not or would not support. The Society used a “scientific charity” method, employing paid professionals to carry out the policies of the executive board, emphasising the importance of public health issues and encouraging self-reliance amongst recipients of aid.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Rental support, Cash / vouchers, Guidelines / materials /mass communications United States 1871 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2011-2012 A.32
The History of Three Point Five Square Metres, 2013 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (B.01) Of all the numeric indicators commonly used as guidelines in humanitarian shelter response, it is the indicator for covered shelter space that is perhaps the most often quoted – three and a half square metres per person. However, a lack of awareness of where this and other indicators came from has played a part in limiting discussion on the appropriate use of this indicator across all forms of shelter and reconstruction response. Site planning, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 B.1
Bankers vs. Builders, 2013 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (B.02) The professionalisation of the shelter sector as a part of humanitarian assistance is often dated to the early 1970s and the work of researchers-cum-practitioners like Fred Cuny and Ian Davis1. These grand doyens of shelter after disasters helped establish a number of principles for the sector that remain true today. Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Loans, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 B.2
Livestock Sheltering in Humanitarian Situations, 2013 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (B.03) Livestock have been sheltered within household infrastructure for hundreds of years. Vernacular buildings in many less developed countries still contain provision for livestock. Fences and bushes within a household plot of land are also traditionally used to shelter livestock. For example in Gujarat, India, thorny fences of Acacia Arabica are used to protect the buffaloes. In Sri Lanka, fences of wood and wire are used alongside sheds made of wood or bamboo, roofed with grass or leaves. Site planning, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 B.3
A Reflection on the Importance of Settlements, 2013 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 (B.04) The convergence of disasters and urban areas has propelled the need to address “settlements” as an important component of disaster assistance. But, urban areas are complex physical and social environments which have forced a considerable increase in the complexity of our humanitarian response and the difficulty of recovering after the disaster. Shelter and Settlements are inextricably linked and can no longer be treated as separate units or responses, but must be managed as a single, indivisible programme undertaking. Site planning, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2013 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2011-2012 B.4
Central African Republic, 2013, Conflict 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.01) Emergency: Internal conflict.
Summary: In response to security issues for returning IDPs, a women’s training centre was converted into “Ben-Zvi Night Shelter” – a secure site with communal shelter for people worried about night-time security. The facility was open from 6pm to 6am in an area where security was maintained by the presence of international peacekeeping troops.
Emergency shelter Central African Rep. 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.1
Colombia, 2011, Floods 2011 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.02) Emergency: Recurrent flooding.
Summary: This project supported the entire community of Doña Ana to voluntarily resettle to a new location, due to severe annual flooding. The project was implemented by a consortium which included a private foundation, public bodies and aid organisations. The project involved community-led planning and settlement design and construction, in order to reinforce the community’s resilience and capacity to develop sustainable living solutions in their new village. In total, 148 families were supported with new houses and infrastructure. Furthermore, the project may serve as a model for similar future interventions.
Core housing / progressive shelter, Advocacy / legal, Site planning, Infrastructure, Training Colombia 2011 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.2
Hurricane Sandy, 2012, Hurricane 2012 Hurricane Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.03) Emergency: Hurricane Sandy
Overview: Hurricane Sandy provides a clear example of how a catastrophe can achieve blanket news coverage across the world, and yet for some countries be a ‘silent’ disaster.
United States 2012 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.3
Cuba, 2012, Hurricane 2012 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.04) Emergency: Hurricane Sandy
Summary: Two organisations delivered a standardised roofing kit to families whose homes had been damaged. The organisations, in partnership with the government, provided materials tailored to the needs of each household. Organisation A provided technical assistance, trainings on DRR and a WASH component, whilst Organisation B implemented a Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness which included construction workshops.
Household items, Construction materials, Tools, Support for host families, Housing repair and retrofitting, Training, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Cuba 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.4
Dominican Republic, 2012, Hurricane 2012 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.05) Emergency: Hurricane Sandy
Summary: An integrated early recovery project which combined a shelter response with WASH assistance and risk-reduction components. With the objective of assisting the most vulnerable families, NFIs and tailored shelter-repair kits were distributed through vouchers redeemed at local suppliers. Technical assistance and training was provided to communities and local craftsmen to improve disasterresistant construction techniques.
Household items, Construction materials, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Structural assessment Dominican Rep. 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.5
Haiti, 2012, Hurricane 2012 Hurricane Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.06) Emergency: Hurricane Sandy
Summary: Following an initial emergency response, the project distributed conditional cash grants and technical supervision to support beneficiaries in the construction or repair of houses. Builders were trained in Improved Vernacular Construction (IVC) techniques, using local materials.
Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Training, Structural assessment Haiti 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.6
Fiji, 2012, Tropical Cyclone 2012 Tropical Cyclone Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.07) Emergency: Tropical Cyclone Evan, Fiji.
Summary: Provision of T-shelters for families living in informal settlements whose shelters had been completely destroyed by the cyclone. Beneficiaries were trained in construction techniques and provided labour. T-shelters had to conform to government specifications as permanent housing in informal settlements is illegal, though the construction work opened the door to discussions on housing rights for the poor.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Advocacy / legal, Training Fiji 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.7
Syria conflict, 2011, Conflict 2011 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.08) Emergency: Syria conflict
Overview: Ongoing conflict in Syria since March 2011, and in Iraq since June 2014, has led to rising displacement of Syrians and Iraqis. Many people have been displaced more than once as the pattern of conflict has changed. Currently there are 6.5 million people displaced internally in Syria, 1.8 million people displaced internally in Iraq, and 3 million refugees spread primarily across Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt and Turkey with smaller numbers in North Africa, the Gulf states and Europe (figures as of October 2014).
Syria 2011 Conflict Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.8
Iraq (KR-I), 2013, Conflict 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.09) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KR-I), Iraq.
Summary: Improved living conditions for 500 households through a voucher assistance project to facilitate repairs and maintenance activities.
Cash / vouchers Iraq 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.9
Jordan, 2013, Conflict 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.10) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Jordan.
Summary: Azraq camp was constructed with 13,500 T-shelter units to accommodate 67,000 refugees in response to protracted displacement. T-shelters are interlocking steel structures, designed to maximise privacy and protect against severe weather conditions. They can be disassembled, transported and reassembled.
Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Site planning Jordan 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.10
Jordan, 2013, Conflict 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.11) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Jordan.
Summary: The upgrading programme is made up of several projects, financed by different donors, aiming to increase the number of rental properties available to refugees by supporting landlords to complete unfinished housing units. Landlords are given a conditional cash grant to pay for the construction, paid in advance, which covers a rental period for 12-18 months for a refugee family.
Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Advocacy / legal Jordan 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.11
Jordan, 2014, Conflict 2014 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.12) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Jordan.
Summary: When families in Zaatari refugee camp started to receive pre-fabricated container shelters, a stockpile of used tents began to build up. A tent-recycling project was developed to repair and repackage used tents for new arrivals. Recycling, instead of destroying or giving away the used tents, generated an estimated saving of around US$ 3,000,000 (US$ 600 per tent). Tent components that are too damaged to be re-used for shelters have been used for other purposes.
Emergency shelter Jordan 2014 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.12
Lebanon, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.13) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Lebanon.
Summary: After carrying out minor rehabilitation activities in 2012, the organisation decided to respond to a huge increase in shelter needs, by developing a Sealing-off Kit (SOK) for distribution. The kits enabled beneficiaries to make rapid, emergency improvements to their shelters, such as adding missing doors and windows, whilst waiting for more substantial assistance. The organisation distributed up to 500 kits (for 3,000 people) per week.
Construction materials, Tools, Emergency shelter Lebanon 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.13
Lebanon, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.14) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Lebanon.
Summary: Several different assistance packages made up a larger programme, aimed at improving the living conditions of the most vulnerable Syrian and Lebanese families living in poorest quality shelter. The programme was a multi-sector response, integrating WASH and Child Protection, using multiple modalities, such as NFI distribution, cash and vouchers.
Household items, Construction materials, Emergency shelter, Rental support, Housing repair and retrofitting, Cash / vouchers, Site planning Lebanon 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.14
Lebanon, 2013, Conflict 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.15) Emergency: Syria crisis, refugees in Lebanon.
Summary: The main organisation aimed to increase overall shelter capacity by paying for the conversion of large buildings into collective centres, some of which were already being squatted by refugee families. Since the buildings had been used previously as chicken farms, they had to be disinfected and re-developed to meet minimum shelter standards. Landlords waived rent to the value of the conversion costs, and contracts will be renegotiated once the period of free rent comes to an end.
Emergency shelter, Housing repair and retrofitting Lebanon 2013 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.15
Myanmar, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.16) Emergency: Inter-communal violence in Rakhine
State, Myanmar.
Summary: The project provided temporary shelter to IDPs displaced by conflict until a durable solution could be reached. Shelter was provided in the form of collective shelters, each housing eight families (8-unit buildings) with associated IDP camp infrastructure. The shelters were constructed by both the main organisation (also the Cluster Lead), its partners in the Shelter Cluster, and the government. Beyond providing temporary shelter, the Shelter Cluster continues to advocate strongly for government provision of durable housing options.
Emergency shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure Myanmar 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.16
Nigeria, 2012, Floods 2012 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.17) Emergency: Floods
Summary: The project aimed to support people affected by flooding, reducing their shelter and settlement vulnerabilities. Emergency shelter/NFI kits were distributed followed by a recovery project to support families with rebuilding their shelters using safer construction techniques.
Household items, Core housing / progressive shelter, Training Nigeria 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.17
Pakistan, 2012, Floods 2012 Floods 3 Case studies Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.18-21) Emergency: Recurrent flooding
Overview: Since 2010, annual monsoon rains have been extreme, unpredictable, and unprecedented in recent memory. Intensive agriculture and deforestation, together with poor building practices have greatly increased the risk of flooding and the vulnerability of millions of people.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Site planning, Training Pakistan 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.18-21
Pakistan, 2010-2014, Floods 2010-2014 Floods Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.18-21) Emergency: 2012 floods.
A.18: Overview.
A.19: Flood-affected families were supported with 5,167 transitional shelters in areas where the organisation was already present. The shelters conformed to Sphere standards and were built in three rounds of construction. They were quick to build and incorporated key DRR elements. Village site-planning was introduced in the third phase of the project.
A.20: The project was a continuation of the previous One Room Shelter (ORS) programme, responding to flooding in 2010 and 2011 (see Shelter Projects 2010, A.24 and Shelter Projects 2011-2012, A.22). While the project followed a similar methodology in terms of construction and DRR training, after the 2012 floods there was a much greater emphasis placed on feedback mechanisms.
A.21: The project provided 1,000 vulnerable families with safe, resilient and locally adaptable shelter. The shelters were built with some materials and skilled labour provided by the organisation, and with beneficiaries providing some unskilled labour and salvaged or no-cost materials. Community members not receiving direct shelter assistance were included in the DRR trainings for mapping hazards and improving shelter construction techniques.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Cash / vouchers, Site planning, Training Pakistan 2010 2014 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.18-21
Philippines, 2012, Typhoon 2012 Typhoon Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.22) Emergency: Typhoon Bopha.
Summary: Families were supported to rebuild shelters with materials they salvaged (mostly coco lumber) and materials provided by the organisation (roofing materials and strapping). The organisation paid carpenters to build the main structures after receiving training in safe construction techniques. A focus on community participation and low-cost materials maximised the project outputs.
Household items, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Training Philippines 2012 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.22
Philippines, 2013, Typhoon 2013 Typhoon Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.23-25) Emergency: Typhoon Haiyan
Overview: Typhoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda) was one of the largest typhoons ever to make landfall, and the deadliest in the history of the Philippines. It brought unprecedented levels of damage to a vast area of the country, affecting more than 10% of the population.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Training Philippines 2013 Natural Disaster Overview Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.23-25
Philippines, 2013, Typhoon 2013 Typhoon 2 Case studies Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.23-25) Emergency: Typhoon Haiyan
A.23: Overview.
A.24: The project addressed the need for temporary shelter in the municipalities of Tanauan, Santa Fe and Tacloban through the provision of four types of shelter kit based on the degree of damage to a house. The project prioritised households living in inadequate shelter conditions and with low self-recovery capacity. The organisation supported self-recovery through “Build Back Safer” trainings conducted before shelter kit distributions.
A.25: The main organisation, in collaboration with a local implementing partner, supported the self-recovery of those affected by Haiyan through the provision of direct cash grants, vouchers for quality-controlled materials, and training and guidance in DRR techniques. The two organisations lobbied the government to allow assistance to families waiting to be relocated who were living in the “No Build Zone” (NBZ). Relocation is likely to take 1-2 years.
Household items, Construction materials, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Training Philippines 2013 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.23-25
South Sudan, 2012, Conflict 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.26) Emergency: Conflict in Blue Nile state (Sudan). Refugees in South-Sudan.
Summary: In order to improve the quality of shelter available to refugees in Kaya refugee camp, the lead agency and its implementing partner built 3,747 15m2 shelters. The shelters were designed with flexibility in mind, allowing for later upgrading to CGI roofing and expansion or extension by the beneficiaries. Beneficiaries were given training in construction techniques. Problems with sourcing construction materials meant that construction was delayed.
Transitional shelter / T-shelter S. Sudan 2012 Conflict Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.26
Portugal, 1755, Earthquake 1755 Earthquake Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (A.27) Emergency: 1755 Earthquake, Tsunami and Fire, Lisbon, Portugal.
Summary: Following the destruction of most of the housing stock in Lisbon by an earthquake and related tsunami and fire, a complete re-design and reconstruction of the city was undertaken. The new city was designed to include large public spaces, modern infrastructure, and new, anti-seismic building designs.
Emergency shelter, Transitional shelter / T-shelter, Core housing / progressive shelter, Site planning, Infrastructure, Guidelines / materials /mass communications Portugal 1755 Natural Disaster Case study Shelter Projects 2013-2014 A.27
The importance of assessment in Shelter, 2014 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (B.01) This article describes how assessments have been used to inform humanitarian Shelter programming and support inter-agency coordination, with examples from different countries. Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 B.1
Evaluating cash-for-rent subsidies, 2014 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (B.02) In the last decade or so, the use of cash as a modality in humanitarian interventions has become increasingly prevalent. Today it takes on many diverse forms, from direct, “unconditional” cash transfers to different forms of conditional payments such as vouchers, cash-for-work, or cash-for-rent (see Shelter Projects 2011-2012, B.2). Rental support, Cash / vouchers -n/a- 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 B.2
Security of tenure and humanitarian shelter, 2014 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (B.03) In recent years the humanitarian community has made progress in better orientating emergency shelter toward addressing the needs of the most vulnerable conflict- and disaster-affected populations. During this time, increased attention has been devoted to the different bases upon which beneficiaries of humanitarian shelter assistance occupy their homes, (otherwise known as ‘tenure’). Advocacy / legal, Guidelines / materials /mass communications -n/a- 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 B.3
Supporting host families as shelter options, 2014 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (B.04) The vast majority of the people left homeless after a crisis, before they are assisted by local governments and humanitarian actors, frequently stay with friends, relatives and even strangers, in order to cope. The assistance provided by generous individuals and families who open their homes and hearts to stranded individuals has come to be known as host family support. Host family support is rooted in the willingness of people, whether compelled by family, friendship or community ties, or simply compassion for others, to help those in need. Hosted households rarely pay for support they receive; however, when they do they usually pay at a discounted rate. Support for host families -n/a- 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 B.4
Urban settings, 2014 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 (B.05) Whether people are displaced or non-displaced as a result of a disaster or conflict is one of the fundamental ways in which humanitarian actors have sought to frame methods of Shelter response for disaster-affected populations. In the Sphere Project and many other key sectoral guidelines, the main categories of settlement typologies cascade down from this initial division, and continued displacement can be an indicator of vulnerability, and a key to understanding how far from durable shelter a disasteraffected household might be. Urban -n/a- 2014 -n/a- Opinion piece Shelter Projects 2013-2014 B.5